Research Titles


Boat Cleaning and Sewage

Toxicity – An investigation into the relative impact of environmentally friendly boat cleaners on marine ecosystems compared to standard cleaners and bleaches.

Discharges – An investigation into the nutrient (and/or bacterial discharges) from recreational boating at specific events e.g. regattas and a comparison with background levels.

Discharges – An investigation into the volume and content of grey water discharges into the marine environment from boats.

Wildlife Disturbance

Boat Traffic – An investigation into the impact of boat movement on local populations of marine wildlife.

Mitigations – An investigation into the impact of awareness raising programmes on changing recreational boaters/commercial boaters behaviour near wildlife.

Speed – An investigation into the relationship between propeller noise, boat speed and disturbance of birdlife.

Resource Efficiency

Fuel Use Data – An investigation into fuel use in marine engines comparing perfect condition fuel use to real life.

Energy Consumption – An investigation into the trends and causes of trends of power use in the production yachts and motorboats.

Boat Production – An investigation into the energy consumption for boat manufacture in the UK.

Boat Production – A life cycle analysis of a standard 36-42ft yacht in the UK.

Boat Production – An investigation into the quantity and type of raw materials used in boat production in the UK and an analysis of replacement materials.


Coast Environments – An investigation (using primary and existing data) into the influence of antifoul (and its derivatives) on water quality in coastal environments.

Antifoul development – An investigation into (the impact of market factors including copper pricing on) antifouling paint development and future trends in the UK and global markets.

Knowledge Gaps

The Green Blue would be interested receiving information based on scientific research carried out in the following areas:-


Leach rates: what are the leach rates for different types of antifouling e.g. bonded compared to hard compared to soft anti-foulings? Does bonded copper antifouling deposit less copper into the water over its lifecycle? How do leach rates compare under pressure washing?

Loading: What is the volume of copper coming from recreational craft and is this significant in the context of copper entering the marine environment from other sources e.g. sewage works, run-off from land, storm drains, roads etc.?

‘New types’ of antifouling: are there any likely adverse effects from new ‘environmentally friendly’ types of paint now appearing on the market on aquatic life? E.g. those containing teflon, silicon etc.?

Do different marine environments support more/less amounts of copper e.g. mud, sand, rock?

Cleaning Products

What are the ingredients of the commonly used cleaning products used for boat maintenance e.g. teak cleaner, fibreglass brightener, washing up liquid?

What are the impacts on aquatic life and are these localised or more significant e.g. can ingredients accumulate in sediment etc.?

Loading: what are the volumes entering the water from recreational boating (greywater and boat maintenance) and is this significant compared to inputs from other sources e.g. from agriculture, sewage, industry etc.

Labelling: can a labelling system or protocol be devised to indicate to boaters which products are less damaging to aquatic life?

Black Water/Boat Sewage

What is the volume of nutrients entering the environment from recreational boating compared to other inputs e.g. sewage, fertiliser?

What is the environmental impact of discharging boat sewage in different environments e.g. open sea, estuary, strong/weak tidal areas, sea bed type?

Hull Materials

What is the recycling potential for different types of hull materials?

What is the scope of the issue i.e. how many boats coming to end of their life are currently lying around in clubs, training centres, boatyards and marinas?

Electric Boats

Conduct a life cycle analysis of an electric boat engine. What are the indirect emissions associated with operation? What about the manufacture and disposal implications of the additional batteries required? Do electric boats produce less carbon emissions and cause less harm to the environment overall?